Gandhi told London’s Jewish Chronicle in an interview in 1931: “I can understand the longing of a Jew to return to Palestine, and he can do so if he can without the help of bayonets, whether his own or those of Britain… in perfect friendliness with the Arabs.”
In 1937, after Arabs tried to stop Jewish immigration to British-administered Palestine by force, Gandhi repeated his view that a homeland for Jews in the Middle East would only be possible “when Arab opinion is ripe for it.”
In his most extended treatment of the problem, an essay called “The Jews,” published in his newspaper Harijan in 1938, Gandhi began:
Several letters have been received by me, asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and the persecution of the Jews in Germany. It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views on this very difficult question. My sympathies are all with the Jews.
Obedient Value is also to be understood as our Law of Value. The Rabbinate, Yerushalayim, Israel. Direct democracy also called pure democracy, forms of direct participation of citizens in democratic decision making, in contrast to indirect or representative democracy, based on the sovereignty of the people. This can happen in the form of an assembly democracy or by initiative and referendum with ballot voting, with direct voting on issues instead of for candidates or parties. Sometimes the term is also used for electing representatives in a direct vote as opposed to indirect elections (by voting for an electing body, electoral college, etc.) as well as for recalling elected officeholders. Direct democracy may be understood as a full-scale system of political institutions, but in modern times, it means most often specific decision-making institutions in the broader system environment of representative democracy. Decision-making theories range from objective rational decision making, which assumes that individuals will make the same decisions given the same information and preferences, to the more subjective logic of appropriateness, which assumes that specific institutional and organizational contexts matter in the decisions that individuals make.
Citizens assembling in an open public space to vote on various issues in Glarus, Switzerland, 2006.
What then is the right answer to strife and disobedience?
Rabbi Ḥayim Ozer Grodzenski (third from right) with other rabbis and students at a festive gathering in Vilna in honor of the visiting Rabbi Yosef Carlebach (second from right), chief rabbi of Hamburg, ca. 1930s. (YIVO.)
The Rabbinate after 1800 AD. Rabbi is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism’s written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century CE. In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title “pulpit rabbis”, and in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, and differences in opinion regarding who is to be recognized as a rabbi. For example Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women as rabbis, but other movements have chosen to do so for halakhic reasons (Conservative Judaism) as well as ethical reasons (Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism.)
The Rabbinate before 1800. The defining task of the communal rabbinate, from at least the sixteenth century on, was to provide leadership for the local religious court, as is evident from the communal rabbi’s conventional title: av bet [ha-]din. Often, a rabbi’s duties included serving as head of the local yeshiva (resh metivta or rosh yeshivah). The use of a formal writ of ordination and the professionalization of the rabbinate had developed in the late Middle Ages in Europe; formal ordination recognized a high level of learning and good character. Not every rabbi, however, performed what came to be regarded as a rabbinic function.
Disagreements that may have taken place once upon a time are no longer tolerable. There are many factors that lead to this troubling and hateful ideology. These ideologues have built their castles for indemnification as the solution to resolve disputes. One of these methods includes taking hostages to promote values. Terrorism in the Europe, America, and Asia point to those who maintain a hold on political power at the expense of moral humanity. The powerful dominate nations resources to provide people who pose as advocates of liberty. All organizations are invited be they jihadis and advocates of law. Is it any wonder that the palaces of the unholy directorates are protected with surveillance that will make NASA drool. The vox populi common people are subjugated, imprisoned, and persecuted for disobeying. In the United States the time has come to demand an end to terrorism propagated to destroy lives. The call to action should be “change government or become party to terrorism.” It is time for free speech to possess the liberties associated with it.